20 9 / 2014

geraldique:

My life.

(Source: owlturdcomix, via bestnatesmithever)

20 9 / 2014

19 9 / 2014

ucsdhealthsciences:

Scientists Discover “Dimmer Switch” For Mood Disorders
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as “disappointment.”
The discovery of what may effectively be a neurochemical antidote for feeling let-down is reported Sept. 18 in the online edition of Science.
“The idea that some people see the world as a glass half empty has a chemical basis in the brain,” said senior author Roberto Malinow, MD, PhD, professor in the Department of Neurosciences and neurobiology section of the Division of Biological Sciences. “What we have found is a process that may dampen the brain’s sensitivity to negative life events.”
Because people struggling with depression are believed to register negative experiences more strongly than others, the study’s findings have implications for understanding not just why some people have a brain chemistry that predisposes them to depression but also how to treat it.
Specifically, in experiments with rodents, UC San Diego researchers discovered that neurons feeding into a small region above the thalamus known as the lateral habenula (LHb) secrete both a common excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, and its opposite, the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.
Excitatory neurotransmitters promote neuronal firing while inhibitory ones suppress it, and although glutamate and GABA are among two of the most common neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain, neurons are usually specialists, producing one but not both kinds of chemical messengers.
Indeed, prior to the study, there were only two other systems in the brain where neurons had been observed to co-release excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters – in a particular connection in the hippocampus and in the brainstem during development of the brain’s auditory map.
“Our study is one of the first to rigorously document that inhibition can co-exist with excitation in a brain pathway,” said lead author Steven Shabel, a postdoctoral researcher with Department of Neurosciences and neurobiology section of the Division of Biological Sciences. “In our case, that pathway is believed to signal disappointment.”
The LHb is a small node-like structure in the epithalamus region of the brain that is critical for processing a variety of inputs from the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex and transmitting encoded responses (output) to the brainstem, an ancient part of the brain that mammals share with reptiles.
Experiments with primates have shown that activity in the LHb increases markedly when monkeys are expecting but don’t get a sip of fruit juice or other reward, hence the idea that this region is part of a so-called disappointment pathway.
Proper functioning of the LHb, however, is believed to be important in much more than just disappointment and has been implicated in regulating pain responses and a variety of motivational behaviors. It has also been linked to psychosis.
Depression, in particular, has been linked to hyperactivity of the LHb, but until this study, researchers had little empirical evidence as to how this overstimulation is prevented in healthy individuals given the apparent lack of inhibitory neurons in this region of the brain.
"The take-home of this study is that inhibition in this pathway is coming from an unusual co-release of neurotransmitters into the habenula," Shabel said. Researchers do not know why this region of the brain is controlled in this manner, but one hypothesis is that it allows for a more subtle control of signaling than having two neurons directly counter-acting each other.
Researchers were also able to show that neurons of rodents with aspects of human depression produced less GABA, relative to glutamate. When these animals were given an antidepressant to raise their brain’s serotonin levels, their relative GABA levels increased.
"Our study suggests that one of the ways in which serotonin alleviates depression is by rebalancing the brain’s processing of negative life events vis-à-vis the balance of glutamate and GABA in the habenula," Shabel said. "We may now have a precise neurochemical explanation for why antidepressants make some people more resilient to negative experiences."
Pictured: Basal ganglia neurons (green) feed into the brain and release glutamate (red) and GABA (blue) and sometimes a mix of both neurotransmitters (white).

ucsdhealthsciences:

Scientists Discover “Dimmer Switch” For Mood Disorders

Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as “disappointment.”

The discovery of what may effectively be a neurochemical antidote for feeling let-down is reported Sept. 18 in the online edition of Science.

“The idea that some people see the world as a glass half empty has a chemical basis in the brain,” said senior author Roberto Malinow, MD, PhD, professor in the Department of Neurosciences and neurobiology section of the Division of Biological Sciences. “What we have found is a process that may dampen the brain’s sensitivity to negative life events.”

Because people struggling with depression are believed to register negative experiences more strongly than others, the study’s findings have implications for understanding not just why some people have a brain chemistry that predisposes them to depression but also how to treat it.

Specifically, in experiments with rodents, UC San Diego researchers discovered that neurons feeding into a small region above the thalamus known as the lateral habenula (LHb) secrete both a common excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, and its opposite, the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

Excitatory neurotransmitters promote neuronal firing while inhibitory ones suppress it, and although glutamate and GABA are among two of the most common neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain, neurons are usually specialists, producing one but not both kinds of chemical messengers.

Indeed, prior to the study, there were only two other systems in the brain where neurons had been observed to co-release excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters – in a particular connection in the hippocampus and in the brainstem during development of the brain’s auditory map.

“Our study is one of the first to rigorously document that inhibition can co-exist with excitation in a brain pathway,” said lead author Steven Shabel, a postdoctoral researcher with Department of Neurosciences and neurobiology section of the Division of Biological Sciences. “In our case, that pathway is believed to signal disappointment.”

The LHb is a small node-like structure in the epithalamus region of the brain that is critical for processing a variety of inputs from the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex and transmitting encoded responses (output) to the brainstem, an ancient part of the brain that mammals share with reptiles.

Experiments with primates have shown that activity in the LHb increases markedly when monkeys are expecting but don’t get a sip of fruit juice or other reward, hence the idea that this region is part of a so-called disappointment pathway.

Proper functioning of the LHb, however, is believed to be important in much more than just disappointment and has been implicated in regulating pain responses and a variety of motivational behaviors. It has also been linked to psychosis.

Depression, in particular, has been linked to hyperactivity of the LHb, but until this study, researchers had little empirical evidence as to how this overstimulation is prevented in healthy individuals given the apparent lack of inhibitory neurons in this region of the brain.

"The take-home of this study is that inhibition in this pathway is coming from an unusual co-release of neurotransmitters into the habenula," Shabel said. Researchers do not know why this region of the brain is controlled in this manner, but one hypothesis is that it allows for a more subtle control of signaling than having two neurons directly counter-acting each other.

Researchers were also able to show that neurons of rodents with aspects of human depression produced less GABA, relative to glutamate. When these animals were given an antidepressant to raise their brain’s serotonin levels, their relative GABA levels increased.

"Our study suggests that one of the ways in which serotonin alleviates depression is by rebalancing the brain’s processing of negative life events vis-à-vis the balance of glutamate and GABA in the habenula," Shabel said. "We may now have a precise neurochemical explanation for why antidepressants make some people more resilient to negative experiences."

Pictured: Basal ganglia neurons (green) feed into the brain and release glutamate (red) and GABA (blue) and sometimes a mix of both neurotransmitters (white).

(via kenyatta)

19 9 / 2014

16 9 / 2014

uptopcast:

Videographer, banjo player, and probable lycanthrope Colby Hoke ushers in a new era of double-digit Up Tops.

With a belly full of Sonic regret, Colby teaches me about Fred Durst and North Carolina geography, reveals his plan to fix the burrito, and talks about banjo camp in Tennessee. We learn that he used to edit video for large-family reality shows on TLC, then Colby takes on Golden Girls episode titles for the Up Top quiz. I lost a bet for This Week In Denny’s so we read negative Yelp reviews before finishing up with a game of Scruples about chicken strip poker.

[And as it turns out, a better microphone picks up every little sound, and I learned that I pound the table a lot. Sorry folks, I’ll ease up for next time.]

This episode was produced with help from Laura Walters and is brought to you by the male name “Steve.”

New ep is up, y’all. Go give a listen and maybe rate and review on iTunes?

16 9 / 2014

15 9 / 2014

pleatedjeans:

OMG! It’s the most adorable plumber in the world! [x]

Got a leak? I otter fix it.

pleatedjeans:

OMG! It’s the most adorable plumber in the world! [x]

Got a leak? I otter fix it.

14 9 / 2014

"I often use the metaphor of Perseus and the head of Medusa when I speak of science fiction. Instead of looking into the face of truth, you look over your shoulder into the bronze surface of a reflecting shield. Then you reach back with your sword and cut off the head of Medusa. Science fiction pretends to look into the future but it’s really looking at a reflection of what is already in front of us. So you have a ricochet vision, a ricochet that enables you to have fun with it, instead of being self-conscious and superintellectual."

14 9 / 2014

buttart:

animals-riding-animals:

wombat riding turtle

the animal kingdom is a strange and beautiful place

buttart:

animals-riding-animals:

wombat riding turtle

the animal kingdom is a strange and beautiful place

(via kenyatta)

14 9 / 2014

(Source: nickdouglas)

13 9 / 2014

malglories:

i’m not even going to wait until october this year
the ghost jokes have begun

malglories:

i’m not even going to wait until october this year

the ghost jokes have begun

(Source: pdlcomics, via bestnatesmithever)

12 9 / 2014

"No matter how far you travel, you can never get away from yourself."

Haruki Murakami  (via sophianism)

(via fuckyeahexistentialism)